"Having long been possessed with an ardent desire to see the Distilleries of Scotland...", Alfred Barnard, 1885

"O Thou, my muse! guid auld Scotch drink", from Scotch Drink, by Robert Burns

Friday, 30 July 2010

Glasgow Part 3 – (Loch Katrine) Adelphi Distillery

A walk through Glasgow – past and present
Buchanan Street Glasgow looking south
After my seagull induced delay at George Square I make tracks for the south side of the city centre, across the River Clyde. I follow Barnard’s footsteps down Buchanan Street “the finest thoroughfare in Glasgow’ and then “through busy Argyle street”. These streets are also busy with shoppers today and after many years of neglect Buchanan Street has been transformed over the last 25 years into something that can once again be described as a fine thoroughfare, with the Royal Concert Hall at the north end looking down to the St Enoch Centre at the other.

At the top of Buchanan street I pass the entrance to a Subway station. Glasgow’s Subway was opened in December 1896, 10 years after Barnard’s journey ended. Barnard travelled by rail and by horse and cart for most of his tour; the motor car would replace the horse and cart in the early 20th century, in Glasgow the opening of the ‘District Railway’ as it was then known was the first stick in the spokes for animal powered transport in the city.

Outside the O2 shop there is still a queue of around 20-30 people at 2pm, waiting to purchase the latest release of the Apple iPhone. Barnard notes only a few distilleries with telephone links during his tour, and most of them only between distillery and an office in another part of the city. Alexander Graham Bell’s famous inaugural telephone call was made on 10 March 1876, the first British telephone link appeared in 1878 and provincial companies spread across the UK between 1881 and 1885 (when Barnard’s tour commenced).

Barnard’s journal was serialised in Harpers as he was travelling and I pondered over how long it would take for his notes to reach the London publisher from far away villages in the highlands. In the 1880s, the Post Office used horse drawn carts and the rail service for mail collection and delivery. Today, communication technology could allow me to write this piece on an iPhone (if one magically appeared through my letterbox) and instantly post it to this blog with just the slightest contact with a touch sensitive screen.

I cross the River Clyde by way of the Victoria Bridge which was built in 1851 to replace the old Stockwell Bridge. The original Glasgow Bridge had been built on this site in 1350 and was, for 400 years, the only bridge across the Clyde. Barnard describes the scene on the Clyde as “…one never to be forgotten; a forest of mast extending as far as the eye can reach; the open centre of the silver stream; …the endless variety of sounds and sights complete a picture unequalled in any other city in the world.”

River Clyde from Victoria Bridge
Perhaps some poetic licence in that last statement, we don’t know how well travelled Barnard was, but nonetheless a picture of busy commercial and passenger activity. In the late 19th century Glasgow produced half of all the ship tonnage in Britain. In the early to mid 20th century the Clyde was still one of the major ship building rivers in the world, the Royal Yacht Britannia and the QEII liner among the classics built there. Not any more. The shipbuilding has mostly gone; the banks of the Clyde now home to modern apartments and office blocks. Barnard’s description of the Clyde as a ‘silver stream’ is a far cry from the post industrial murk that now winds its way through the city.

The Distillery
The Adelphi Distillery was built in 1826 and used to stand at the north-west corner of the infamous Gorbals, between the Gorbals Cross and the Clyde. The site of the distillery was previously an orchard, long before Glasgow became an industrial heartland of the British Empire, and no doubt contributing to the city’s moniker as the ‘dear green place’.

Adelphi was one of the largest distilleries in Scotland at the time of Barnard’s visit, producing in excess of 500,000 gallons (2.3m litres) per annum and was one of the few producing both malt and grain whisky on the same site. The distillery also had warehouses at Port Dundas and most of its malting was also done there, again emphasising the importance of that area to Glasgow’s distilling history.

Adelphi Street today
An 1895 map (NLS, OS large scale Scottish town plans, 1847-1895, VI.11.21) names Adelphi as Loch Katrine Distillery and it was licensed as Loch Katrine Adelphi in 1870. Adelphi Street is named on the map running along the bank of the Clyde just to the north of the distillery and this is now a public walkway. The name Loch Katrine perhaps came from this loch being the water source for producing whisky at the distillery, the pipeline to supply Glasgow having been opened in 1859.

The distillery was bought by the Distillers Company Ltd in 1902 and was closed in 1907. The distillery buildings remained until they were demolished in the late 1960s and the final landmark, the chimney, came down in 1971. I have heard of one story about a major accident in 1906 when an additional building to accommodate two new washbacks, which Barnard had noted as under construction when he visited, collapsed and flooded the street with wash. This may have led to the decision to close the distillery.

The Gorbals
Distillery accidents aside, the Gorbals had other alcohol issues to deal with. Perhaps to quench the drouth of those employed in the hot, dusty industries the Gorbals quite literally had a pub on every corner. On the 1895 map (ref VI.15.2) one street block between Crown Street and Rose Street has PH marked for Public House on every corner and no less than 10 in total in the block.

Barnard makes no mention of the Gorbals area in his report. Running to the south and east of the distillery the Gorbals was an overpopulated series of cramped four storey tenements and heavy industry, with dye works, iron foundries, forges and cotton mills side by side with homes and schools. The tenements housed generations of families under one roof and were overcrowded and dirty. Poor sanitation, poor quality building and the dust and smoke from industry made this one of the poorest slums in Glasgow.

Various attempts at regeneration have taken place since as early as the 1860s and the area was finally transformed into more modern housing and commercial areas following demolition of the last tower blocks in the 1980s.

Present Day
Glasgow Central Mosque
The site on which the Adelphi distillery once stood is now home to Glasgow Central Mosque. Built in 1983 the Mosque is the focal point for Glasgow’s Muslim population and can accommodate 2,000 people for prayer. This striking building features a traditional Minaret and a large, ornate glass dome allows light to flood the interior.

My vague understanding of the Islamic view on alcohol is that the Qur’an is interpreted as forbidding alcohol (and other intoxicants) as they are considered harmful (particularly in turning one away from God and prayer). Most observing Muslims will avoid drinking alcohol in any form. Other interpretations extend to the avoidance of anything connected to alcohol including production, transportation and sale.

The building of Scotland’s largest Mosque on the site where once stood one of Scotland’s largest distilleries may be the clearest contrast in a change of land use that I will encounter on this journey. Whatever their views on alcohol the Muslim community appear to have embraced their new home, and this tranquil corner, adjacent to a leafy walkway along the banks of the now serene Clyde, is a stark contrast to the noise and industry of its past, and also an echo of the close communities that were once forged in the Gorbal tenements.

The name Adelphi also lives on in a more recent whisky venture. In 1993, the great-grandson of Archibald Walker who owned the distillery in the 1880s, Jamie, revived the name as an independent bottler, Adelphi Distillery Ltd. Not an actual distillery the company bottle single cask whiskies under the Adelphi name. The whisky writer Charles Maclean chairs their nosing team.

My journey now takes me east to where a new forge stands in Glasgow.

Saturday, 24 July 2010

Rumblings from the Cask - Dram 1

My first observations of life on the edges of the distillery tour:

After visiting Port Dundas and Dundashill distilleries I retraced my weary steps back to George Square. This is the main civic square in the city and Glasgow City Chambers stand on its east side. As you wander this pride of the city you will notice the statues to the great and good of Scottish history. However, over time, these black monuments have become ‘guano’ capped. Seagulls are the main culprit, the kamikaze pigeons no doubt contribute too.

These flying rats of the sky rotate like a holding pattern over an airport, each taking its turn to land and ‘drop off’. Or like a game of musical statues; whenever the strangled tones of ‘Caledonia’, currently being mangled by the drunk on the park bench, are halted for a swig of Buckie, the seagulls fight for the statues and wait until the singin’ starts again before taking to the air.

Robert Burns in George Square
Maybe it was deaf, or maybe the other birds hadn’t explained the rules to the gull on top of Robert Burns’ statue as I stood, patiently, muttering, for a full ten minutes, waiting to take a picture of this snow capped memorial to one of my heroes.

I consider giving the drunk a kick to wake him up and try another song to get my stationary gull, almost statuesque itself, to move on. Actually I consider shooting the gull with me old fowling piece but the Glesga Polis don’t take too kindly to that kind of behaviour in their town square (naebody move, thurs been a murrrderrr).

While waiting for the chance of a photograph I caught myself, not for the first time in my life, rewriting Burn’s poetry in my head. I wondered what eulogy he might have penned to the seagull if it were actually him up there on the plinth:

Tae a seagull
Wee, feathery, flyin’, shiterous, birdie;
Oh what a mess is in thy turdy;
Get aff ma heid!

Maybes no!

Robert Burns and Sir Walter Scott
The main statue in George Square is of Sir Walter Scott. Burns and Scott sadly never got this close for long in life. Burns died prematurely at the age of 37 when Scott was 25 and just beginning his literary career. They met very briefly only once before, when Scott was 15 and Burns was in Edinburgh. One wonders what impact they may have had on each other's writing had their lives overlapped for longer.

Of the other statues, William Gladstone stands stoically upright, liberaly trying to ignore the metaphorical political statements the gulls were dropping on him. A young Queen Victoria, imperious in the way she was during her long reign, bestride her horse in defiance of the onslaught. James Watt just bows his head in shame. He is credited with developing the steam engine yet now looks in need of a good steam clean himself. I wonder if Glasgow Cleansing Department have a schedule for cleaning these statues, or is it a never ending task like painting the Forth Bridge used to be, or have they just given up and decided that white statues would look better?

I shall make enquires and update you on guanogate in due course.

Glasgow Part 2 - Port Dundas and Dundashill distilleries

Barnard travelled from the Victoria Hotel to Port Dundas in a horse and trap, then the main means for well-to-do people to get around town. According to Wikipedia, Karl Benz’ first ‘Motorwagen’ was built in 1885, the same year as Barnard started his journey, and in Britain the first petrol-powered car was produced in 1894. Large scale production didn’t commence until the early 1900s.

It’s not far from George Square to Port Dundas so I choose to walk on a bright summer morning. A short climb north of the city centre brings you to the basin at the western end of the Forth and Clyde Canal.

Port Dundas Distillery and canal basin
Barnard’s first impression of Port Dundas was a “scene of great commercial activity” and the port would be busy with grain, coal, peat, wood and other goods being unloaded to supply the distilleries, with casks being loaded for onward journeys to blenders and bottlers. He describes how the port is “…strange to say, at the top of a hill over-looking the city. The appearance of ships’ masts in such a position, over-topping the houses, presented to us a peculiar surprise.”

Port Dundas is now a more sedate environment although commercial activity still takes place at the distillery, the cement factory and other local businesses arranged in two business parks. To the west, alongside Spier’s Wharf, the granaries and warehouses of Dundashill distillery are now converted into flats and offices.

The M8 beyond the silent canal
The ship activity at Spier’s Wharf is now replaced by traffic on the M8 as it thunders by, like blood pounding through an artery. On the distant southern horizon the masts are those of the wind turbines at Whitelee wind farm on Eaglesham Moor, Europe’s largest onshore wind farm, striding high above the city skyline. I thought about how Barnard would view this stark contrast with the noisy, dirty, coal and steam used in huge quantities to power the great industrial complexes of his time. On his list of 129 distilleries in Scotland he only records 2 or 3 that are connected to electricity power, and that only used for lighting. Incandescent light bulbs were first invented in 1870s, the steam turbine for generation of electricity in 1884.

Port Dundas distillery was once one of the largest in the world and produced no less than 2,562,000 gallons of spirit (11.6m litres) per annum when Barnard visited. The Tun room contained 35 washbacks, some holding as much as 53,000 gallons (241,000 litres). The still room contained 3 Coffey’s Patent Stills, 70 feet high, and 5 pot stills “one of them having a capacity of 24,000 gallons [109,000 litres] and said to be the largest in the kingdom.” This was a huge venture and by far the largest production volume of any distillery in Scotland at that time.

The site is currently home to the Glasgow headquarters of Diageo. However, in 2009 Diageo announced that the distillery was to close this year, its 200th anniversary. Production of grain whisky for the drinks group is to be met at Cameronbridge distillery in Fife which is to be expanded, and the office staff are being moved to other locations.

Not unsurprisingly the announcement by Diageo was met with widespread media attention and political and union condemnation. It was announced as part of a restructuring package resulting in 900 job losses across Scotland, including 700 at its packaging plant in Kilmarnock, although to be offset by the creation of 400 new posts in Fife. Glasgow was home to six distilleries when Barnard visited – after this year it will host only one.

Glasgow skyline
To the west of Port Dundas distillery stood the Dundashill distillery which was Barnard’s second to visit. He describes buildings of great height on the side of a steep hill “one of them forming the highest point in Glasgow.” The view over Glasgow below is now scattered with high rise buildings, remnants of the 1960s social engineering that cleared the old tenements and broke down long standing community relationships to re-house the working class populations in new ‘vertical’ housing schemes.

Barnard describes the view from the top on a clear day, with distant mountains visible to the west and north. From the highest point I could scramble to I could indeed just make out the tops of Goat Fell on Arran and Ben Lomond, Scotland’s most southerly Munro (mountains over 3000 feet high) which rises majestically from the shores of Loch Lomond.

Converted Dundashill warehouses
The granaries, malt barns and kilns for the distillery are now converted into flats and offices on the bank of the canal. Further up the hill the other buildings of the distillery are long since demolished. The distillery was forced to close in 1902 and in 1903 was sold to The Distillers Company Ltd, owners of Port Dundas distillery and now part of Diageo. The site has been used by Diageo as a cooperage until this year and is now to close as part of the restructuring programme.

Diageo cooperage at Dundashill
As I climb the short road named Dundashill which leads to the gates of the cooperage I am approached by security staff. I was, foolishly, carrying my camera open in my palm and likely due to the sensitivity of the restructuring, and the emotional fall out from the announcement, they were clear that I could go no further. I am allowed to take photographs of the M8 motorway and the canal basin from this vantage point, but that’s it for part 1 of my journey.

At some time on this journey I hope that Diageo will grant me access to their archives which I understand are moving from Port Dundas. If I can trace any evidence of Barnard’s visit to these historical sites, perhaps a message recorded in a visitor’s book, then I will report back to you in due course.

Wednesday, 21 July 2010

Glasgow Part 1 - Arrival

Barnard’s journey began from Euston Station in London from where he took “the night mail…on the iron road to Glasgow.” His original plan was to commence his tour in Orkney but, almost inevitably, unfavourable weather forced him to change his plans to “entering the land of whisky” on the sleeper train to Glasgow Central Station.

His party was in high spirits when they left London, clearly looking forward to the adventure set before them and enjoying some “amusement out of our fellow travellers.” They both teased and shared their flask with a cleric who was on an altogether different spiritual journey but who was converted to offer assistance to their cause after partaking of a dram. Barnard writes with humour “the pious looking brother offered to join us in our excursions, that he might do the tasting, and we the writing. This generous offer we declined.”

Ah the joys, and rewards, of sharing a dram or passing round a hip flask. I shall return to the mysterious workings of the hip flask in a later post.

My own journey began less romantically, not on a steam train from London but a Scotrail Class 170 Turbostar (their italics!) from Edinburgh to Glasgow Queen Street. As you approach Glasgow QS on the line via Falkirk High you can see a chimney to the west that stands at Port Dundas, however it’s not for the distillery but for the Tarmac cement works next door. The etching of the Port Dundas Distillery that appears in Barnard shows no less that four chimney stacks, now there are none. The distillery chimneys of old are now a rarer sight as more stills are gas fired and far fewer distilleries run their own maltings on site with corresponding kilns; I feel a sub-project about chimneys coming on, let’s find out on the journey.

I too started in high spirits but also with some trepidation about the task before me. Barnard notes that he found his initial attempts at writing up his journal “beset with difficulties far exceeding what I had contemplated” but he grew to the task over the weeks and the end result was worth his initial trials and tribulations. I hope my own experiences take on the spirit of Barnard and I too “acquire quite a zest for these distillery studies.”

On arrival in Glasgow Barnard’s party took up quarters at the Victoria Hotel and were treated to a “substantial breakfast” before visiting their first distillery, Port Dundas. I wish to explore the hotels and inns that Barnard rested at and to stay in those that remain open today, so I had been looking for the Victoria Hotel hoping this would be a good start. After a few hours of searching an old map of Glasgow from the 1800s I eventually found it marked – right opposite Queen Street Station! A good omen perhaps? Not so lucky – the old hotel had long since gone and was replaced by a modern (1960/70s?) office block. Occupied by one of our national banks for many years it now reflects the recent havoc within our banking industry and the offices lie derelict and are up for sale.

Ah well, no hotel for me to enjoy a substantial breakfast in so I chose the nearest alternative – almost inevitably a JD Weatherspoon establishment on George Square called The Counting House. Yup, you’ve guessed it, another old banking hall, renovated and now serving liquid assets in return for brown, crinkly, 10 pound drinking vouchers. Barnard would have recognised the style of banking represented by the huge, vaulted and ornate interior to the hall. This was resonant of a time when banking was done face to face, with sincerity and austerity. Barnard would have felt at home here and may even have drawn cash in this building for his venture.

Barnard’s party were welcomed by “the cheery landlord, Angus Mackay, a stalwart young ‘Hielander’.” At ‘Spoons’ I was welcomed by the no less cheery Susan who gave me a card to receive a free coffee after it has been stamped five times. I feel this may be filled before long.

Spoons offers free wi-fi to its customers and so I can begin recording my thoughts here. Barnard very likely recorded his notes with a fountain pen and paper; Morrice, on his whisky tour in 1985, was writing pre-internet so may have used a biro or dictaphone; and so this blog reflects the common means of written communication of this day.

Barnard and I have both enjoyed our welcome in Glasgow and our breakfast (watch out for a future blog post on the subtle differences between the full Scottish and the full English breakfast) and so we both head to our first distillery, Port Dundas.

3 - Whiskystory or whiskhistory?

Alfred Barnard
In the introduction to the 2003 edition of Barnard, Richard Joynson describes the author as:

"… a self financing, fun loving Victorian waster, on a bit of a skive with his chums travelling the kingdom’s most breathtaking dramatic regions – all in search of a good dram."

That sounds about right and I think my own situation echos this characterization. Apart from the Victorian bit, unless you believe some of my more ‘witty’ chums in Edinburgh. Thanks guys!

A little bit about what to expect in this blog:

I don’t plan to write too much about the character of different whiskies, although I do intend to sample, and acquire, many whiskies along the way. My nose and palate are not up to the task of providing the reader with adequate descriptions and analysis of what makes each whisky unique, and besides there are many more experienced bloggers out there who are already providing this service. Among my favourites are Dr. Whisky and Malt Madness and their words do far better justice to our greatest product than I ever could. I will leave the whisky adjectives to them and others.

I will be visiting every distillery as described in post 2 but I won’t be touring every one, only those who seem to offer something different to the normal tourist experience. I don’t plan to go into the obsessive detail that Barnard did with regard to the size and volume of buildings, machines and vessels, and the whisky process at each distillery. Again, there are already detailed descriptions of our distilleries in publication. If you are looking for detail then I recommend Misako Udo’s substantial work The Scottish Whisky Distilleries (For the whisky enthusiast). I am a whisky enthusiast and this book has been invaluable in some parts of my planning.

What I hope to do is explore the changes in our whisky industry during the 125 years since Barnard embarked on his journey. By exploring the sites of both closed and current distilleries I hope to contrast changes in land use, any modernisation that followed industrialisation, and the impact of the growth in tourism and the necessary diversification that has developed within the industry during the last few decades. Contrasts and changes will be the keys to offering something I hope you will enjoy reading.

Along the way I will be offering some thoughts, as Barnard did, on the journey, the landscape, means of transport and any other observations that come to mind. These impressions of Scotland will be from the heart and I promise not to shy away from critical observation of my homeland when required. If I can also offer some amusement and entertainment through these sections then I will have achieved another goal.

Information on whisky distilleries, maps, locations etc. has been drawn from a number of publications and websites. If I have missed any references, or notes of thanks then I hope to correct that as I progress and record my journey. My enthusiasm for this trip has been boosted by the gentle cajoling and interest of my friends in Edinburgh and Copenhagen and this blog is dedicated to them, and to the spirit of Barnard.


2 - Beginnings

"Having long been possessed with an ardent desire to see the Distilleries of Scotland…"

Thus begins the opening chapter of Barnard’s journey round the whisky distilleries of Great Britain. This turned out to be a sentiment I expressed (perhaps foolishly, time will tell) to friends in Edinburgh some time in 2009, long before I knew anything about Barnard. This notion grew in my mind as I sold my flat, quit my job and settled into the far too comfortable position of being funemployed.

After some research and more foolish public mutterings on the subject, I began to formulate a plan for my trip which should have begun late 2009. But you know how these things go – too much dramming and not enough planning, too much dreaming and not enough scheming. Enough! It was then that I found Barnard (as his writings will here be known as). I picked up this random book in the window of a bar in Edinburgh while enjoying a few fine whiskies one evening. After reading only a few pages I realised that this was the inspiration I needed to get my butt in gear and push on with my dream of visiting what I thought were around 100 current distilleries in Scotland.

After more months of planning (procrastination) this blog has been created to record the journey I have now, finally, embarked on (about bloody time! Hush now). My plan is to visit the sites of all the whisky distilleries in Scotland listed in Barnard, plus those that have opened since and are still open, and a number of those that have opened and closed in the interim as the whisky industry waxed and waned in investment potential and interest in its products.

My estimate of 100 has now grown to 176 ‘sites’ and rising as I explore more of this fascinating subject. All these sites, and the locations of hotels and inns, are now plotted on a Google map, recording the exact locations of each one after weeks of cross referencing details with the historic maps that have been digitised by the National Library of Scotland (a fantastic free resource that anyone can access through the NLS website).  I will post links to my lists and the map at a later date.

I have taken on a project far larger, more complex, and utterly fascinating than I had ever imagined. I may need a dram or two to help me get through this!

1 - Background

Alfred Barnard
Starting in the summer of 1885, Alfred Barnard, who was then secretary of the London wine and spirit journal Harper’s Weekly Gazette, set out to visit every whisky distillery in Great Britain. He expected his journey to take around two years and he visited 129 distilleries in Scotland, 28 in Ireland and 4 of the 10 then licensed in England.

His notes on each distillery were serialised in Harper’s and at the end of his trip they were published together in book form in January 1887. The book has been reprinted several times in recent years as the whisky industry, and whisky tourism in particular, has enjoyed a period of growth and interest.

Barnard travelled with different companions and met kind hospitality at the distilleries he visited. At each one he recorded detailed descriptions of the whisky production, the equipment used, water sources, the size and volume of buildings, machines and vessels, and the general arrangement of the processes in place in each distillery.

Barnard also recorded notes on some of the hotels and inns he rested in, the means of transport he used and his views of the countryside he passed through on his epic journey. It seems clear from his writing that he enjoyed the journey perhaps as much as the distilleries he visited.

In 1985, on the centenary of the commencement of Barnard’s journey, Philip Morrice embarked on a similar venture and visited all the then licensed distilleries in Scotland and Ireland. Of the 129 that Barnard visited in Scotland, 59 had since closed and 51 new distilleries had opened. Morrice did not visit the sites of the closed distilleries but did write descriptions of the 121 that existed in 1985/86, including a number not then in production.

Your blogger
I have been enjoying malt whisky since the mid 90s and after visiting around 20 distilleries over a few years I decided to take time out to visit them all and expand my knowledge of the industry and its history. This whisky blog will record my journey in Barnard’s footsteps.

I am always delighted to meet visitors to Scotland and I enjoy helping our guests to see more of God’s own country, and share a few drams along the way.

Robert Burns is one of my heroes and I hope to explore his life and legacy on a separate, parallel journey that I intend to record at some time as well. I first learned Burns’ Address To A Haggis in 1987 and many haggii have fallen to my sword since. Burns liked ‘a wee drappie’ and also wrote a fabulous poem titled Scotch Drink which inspires this blog as well.

Blog Bibliography (in progress):
Both Sides of the Burn (The Story of Yoker), The Senior Pupils of Yoker Secondary School (1966). Bell, Aird & Coghill Ltd, Glasgow.

Malt Whisky Yearbook 2011, ed. Ingvar Ronde (2010). MagDig Media Limited.

National Library of Scotland, Ordnance Survey large scale Scottish town plans, 1847-1895, available at http://www.nls.uk/maps/townplans/index.html.

On the Trail of Robert Burns, John Cairney (2000). Luath Press Ltd, Edinburgh.

Raw Spirit: In Search of the Perfect Dram, Iain Banks (2003). Century, London.

Rothes 2001 and 'Oor Young Days', The Rothes Book Group (2001).

Scotch Missed: The Lost Distilleries of Scotland, Brian Townsend (1993). Neil Wilson Publishing Ltd, Glasgow.

Spirit of Adventure, Tom Morton (1992). Mainstream Publishing, Edinburgh.

The Distilleries of Campbeltown, David Stirk (2005). Neil Wilson Publishing Ltd, Glasgow.

The Scottish Whisky Distilleries (For the whisky enthusiast), Misako Udo (2005). Distillery Cat Publishing.

The whisky distilleries of Scotland and Ireland, Philip Morrice (1987). Harper Publishing.

The Whisky Distilleries of the United Kingdom, Alfred Barnard (1887). Harper’s Weekly Gazette. (The edition that will accompany me on my journey is from 2008, by Birlinn Ltd).